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A former journalist recalls Ukraine’s 1991 vote for independence

On Aug. 24, 1991, I was one of a handful of foreign journalists working for a British newspaper and in the Ukrainian parliament when legislators surprised the world and voted for Ukraine’s declaration of independence.

This year Ukraine is once again surprising the world with its resilience in the face of Russia’s ongoing attack on its statehood.

That’s possibly because prior to the February 2022 invasion, the world didn’t know much about Ukraine.

Some continue to have impressions of the country that were shaped by imperial Russia, and replicated by some western scholars, portraying Ukraine as part of Russia or at least in Russia’s sphere of influence.

She had an MA in Russian and East European Studies from one of Britain’s top universities, but upon arriving in Ukraine was surprised to learn that Ukrainians had a different vision of their history from what she’d been taught.

Russians were also surprised when Ukraine declared independence.

For centuries they had been fed a story that Kyiv was the cradle of their civilisation and that Ukrainian national aspirations were a foreign plot to weaken Russia.

Imperial expansion

The invasion was intended to legitimise control over territory and construct a foundational myth based around the ancient Kyivan-Rus past, much older than Moscow.

Kyiv authorities banned mass gatherings in the capital for fear of Russian missile attacks. Independence Day fell on the same day as the six-month mark in the war.

Russian historians created what Canadian scholar Zenon Kohut described as the “unity paradigm” in which the Russian people are allegedly composed of three branches, the “Great Russians,” the “Little Russians” — how Russians describe Ukrainians — and “White Russians,” the name they use for Belarusians.

Later, in 1783 when the Russian Empire conquered Crimea from the Ottomans, the myth was expanded to include the peninsula as historic Russian lands.

When Ukraine voted for independence — a dramatic series of events brilliantly captured in a must-watch documentary series called Collapse: How Ukrainians Destroyed the Evil Empire — Moscow panicked.

Russian leader Boris Yeltsin said that borders with Ukraine needed revision and dispatched a special delegation to Kyiv to deal with the “emergency situation” on Aug. 28, 1991, four days after Ukraine’s parliament voted for independence.

Yury Shcherbak, a Ukrainian MP involved with the delegation, described a flight to Kyiv on which the delegation members were nervous, drinking and asking each other incredulously what had those “khokhly” done?

Ukraine gradually sorted out its economy and became part of the international community, but internal divisions persisted.

In 2004, things came to a head over a presidential election and erupted in what is known as the Orange Revolution, referred to by Russia as a “foreign plot.”

Ukraine ‘felt European’

I was in Ukraine on sabbatical at the time and Susan came to visit me.

She couldn’t believe how much the country had changed from its Soviet decrepitude and noted it felt European.

The Motherland Monument in Kyiv.

Things had changed even more when corrupt, seemingly pro-Russian president Victor Yanukovych was poised to sign the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement in 2013, then decided not to after a trip to Moscow.

Another revolution erupted — the Euromaidan uprising, once more called a foreign plot by Russia.

Russian President Vladimir Putin kept repeating the unity paradigm — “Russians and Ukrainians are one people — a single whole” — and then launched its full-scale military invasion in February 2022 to bring Ukraine back under Russia’s control.

He was probably surprised when Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky reportedly refused an American offer to evacuate and said: “I need ammunition, not a ride.”

Many Ukrainians are standing up against Russian attempts to eradicate their state.

The strength, determination and skill with which Ukrainians are asserting that they are not “little Russians” may eventually lead Putin to reconsider his perceptions of Ukraine.

Independence Day celebrations

This year, Susan and I planned to travel to Ukraine for Independence Day, but all public celebrations were cancelled for safety reasons and our friends advised us not to come.

But Ukrainians once again found a creative way to celebrate.

Instead of the usual parade, they lined Kyiv’s main street with destroyed Russian military equipment.

So we toasted an independent Ukraine’s 31st birthday in Toronto, not at all surprised by the strength, courage and resilience of Ukrainians.

Marta Dyczok, Associate Professor of History and Political Science, Specializing in Ukraine, Western University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.


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